Psalms from the Hive

by Jeannie Saum

Active heathy, hive box

Active heathy, hive box

Life is hard, sometimes

But hold on to hope

And look for help

From God’s creations.

Clover, Bee, and Revery

Reverie (revery) –(n.) state of dreamy meditation or fanciful musing; a fantastic, visionary, or impractical idea

 

There are many studies found on the National Institutes of Health and GreenMedInfo websites regarding propolis and colon cancer.  The studies done in vitro (in a lab dish on cells) and on animals, show that propolis inhibits the growth of colon cancers sells in various ways.  Unfortunately, there are no clinical studies, as yet, on human beings, so this encouraging news is preliminary and needs further study.  Despite the limitations of the studies done so far, if I had cancer, I would certainly consider the use of propolis as an adjunct therapy  to whatever else was prescribed.

Here are summaries of some of the promising studies I have found.

“Chemoprevention of colon carcinogenesis by phenylethyl-3-methylcaffeate”, by Rao CV1, Desai D, Rivenson A, Simi B, Amin S, Reddy BS, states that previous studies have established that caffeic acid esters present in propolis, are potent inhibitors of human colon adenocarcinoma cell growth, carcinogen-induced biochemical changes, and preneoplastic lesions in the rat colon. The present study was designed to investigate the chemopreventive action of dietary phenylethyl-3-methylcaffeate (PEMC), from propolis,  on azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis,the colonic mucosa and tumor tissues in male rats. At 5 weeks of age, groups of rats were fed the control diet, or a diet containing 750 ppm of PEMC. At 7 weeks of age, all animals except those in the vehicle (normal saline)-treated groups were given 2 weekly  injections of azoxymethane (cancer inducing agent). All groups were maintained on their respective dietary regimen until the termination of the experiment 52 weeks after the carcinogen treatment.

The results indicate that dietary administration of PEMC (from propolis) significantly inhibited the incidence and multiplicity of invasive, noninvasive, and total (invasive plus noninvasive) adenocarcinomas of the colon. Dietary PEMC also suppressed the colon tumor volume by 43% compared to the control diet. Animals fed the PEMC diet showed inhibited formation of colonic tumors by 15-30%. The precise mechanism by which PEMC inhibits colon tumorigenesis remains to be discovered.   Find this study at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7757981

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In a study from 2008,  titled,” Growth inhibitory activity of ethanol extracts of Chinese and Brazilian propolis in four human colon carcinoma cell lines”, by Ishihara M1, Naoi K, Hashita M, Itoh Y,  and Suzui M,  alcohol extracts of  Chinese and Brazillian propolis were tested on  four human colon carcinoma cell lines.  The findings indicate that the ethanol extracts of propolis contain components that may have anticancer activity.  Some cancers cells succumbed after only 72 hours of treatment.  Thus, propolis and related products may provide a novel approach to the chemoprevention and treatment of human colon carcinoma.  This study can be found at    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19578776.

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“The contribution of plukenetione A to the anti-tumoral activity of Cuban propolis, by Díaz-Carballo D1, Malak S, Bardenheuer W, Freistuehler M, Peter Reusch H, studied Cuban propolis as a source of possible anti-cancer agents. The study found an anti-metastatic effect in mice and considerable cytotoxicity in both wild-type and chemoresistant human tumor cell lines. Plukenetione A– a component identified for the first time in Cuban propolis–induced G0/G1 arrest and DNA fragmentation in colon carcinoma cells.  This study can be found at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18951805.

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inside the hive

inside the hive

A study from 1995, called , “Caffeic acid phenethyl ester induces growth arrest and apoptosis of colon cancer cells via the beta-catenin/T-cell factor signaling”, by Xiang D1, Wang D, He Y, Xie J, Zhong Z, Li Z, Xie J, the effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (in propolis) on human colon cancer cells. Using two human sporadic colon cancer cell lines (HCT116 and SW480), they tested for cell growth inhibition, cell cycle and apoptosis induction.  Caffeic acid phenethyl ester completely inhibited growth, and induced G1 phase arrest and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in both HCT116 and SW480 cells.  Results of the study suggest that caffeic acid phenethyl ester merits further study as an agent against colorectal cancers.  The abstract of this study can be found at  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16926625.

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“Greek propolis exhibits antiproliferative effects against human colon cancer cells”, done in 2010, by Harris Pratsinis, Dimitris Kletsas, Eleni Melliou, and Ioanna Chinou, tested  diterpenes and flavonoids, from Greek propolis, for their activities against human malignant and normal cell strains. They were found to be the most active against HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells, without affecting normal human cells.  this study is found at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7757981.
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“Chilean propolis: antioxidant activity and antiproliferative action in human tumor cell lines” published in 2004 by Russo A1, Cardile V, Sanchez F, Troncoso N, Vanella A, Garbarino JA. tested Chilean propolis for its antiproliferative capacity on KB (human mouth epidermoid carcinoma cells), Caco-2 (colon adenocarcinoma cells) and DU-145 (androgen-insensitive prostate cancer cells) human tumor cell lines. Results showed that this Chilean propolis sample scavenged free radicals and inhibits tumor cell growth.  Find this study at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15556167.

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“Artepillin C in Brazilian propolis induces G(0)/G(1) arrest via stimulation of Cip1/p21 expression in human colon cancer cells”, from 2005, by Shimizu K1, Das SK, Hashimoto T, Sowa Y, Yoshida T, Sakai T, Matsuura Y, Kanazawa K. added Artepillin C (from propolis)  to human colon cancer cells. It dose-dependently inhibited cell growth.  Artepillin C appears to prevent colon cancer through the induction of cell-cycle arrest and to be a useful chemopreventing factor in colon carcinogenesis.

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“Cytotoxicity of portuguese propolis: the proximity of the in vitro doses for tumor and normal cell lines” from 2014, states that  in vitro and in vivo data suggest that propolis has anticancer properties.  The phenolic extracts from Portuguese propolis  was evaluated using human tumor cell lines  – -breast adenocarcinoma, non-small cell lung carcinoma, colon carcinoma, cervical carcinoma, and hepatocellular carcinoma, and non-tumor primary cells. The studied propolis presented high cytotoxic potential for human tumor cell lines. Propolis phenolic extracts comprise phytochemicals that should be further studied for their bioactive properties against human colon carcinoma. In the other cases, the proximity of the in vitro cytotoxic doses for tumor and normal cell lines should be confirmed by in vivo tests.

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